Steven Ruggles

Regents Professor of History and Population Studies
Director, Institute for Social Research and Data Innovation
50 Willey Hall
University of Minnesota
(612) 624-5818


MacArthur Fellowship Video October 2022

Presidential Address Video Social Science History Association, Chicago, November 23, 2019

Presidential Address Video Population Association of America, San Diego, May 1 2015

selected publications

Steven Ruggles. 1987. Prolonged Connections: The Rise of the Extended Family in Nineteenth-Century England and America (University of Wisconsin Press, 1987) Creative Commons License

Steven Ruggles and Diana Magnuson. 2023. "'It's none of their damn business': Privacy and Disclosure Contol in the U.S. Census, 1790-2020." Population and Development Review

Steven Ruggles. 2023. "Collaborations Between IPUMS and Genealogical Organizations, 1999-2022." Historical Life Course Studies 13: 1-8

Diana Magnuson and Steven Ruggles. 2022. "Challenges of large-scale data processing in the 1990s: The IPUMS Experience." IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 44: 71-83

Steven Ruggles. 2022. "Race, Class, and Marriage: Components of Race Differences in Men's First Marriage Rates in the United States, 1960-2019." Demographic Research 46: 1163-1186

Steven Ruggles and David Van Riper. 2022. "The Role of Chance in the Census Bureau Database Reconstruction Experiment." Population Research and Policy Review 41: 781-788

Jonas Helgertz, Joseph Price, Jacob Wellington, Kelly Thompson, John Robert Warren, Steven Ruggles, and Catherine Fitch. 2021. "A new strategy for linking U.S. historical censuses: A case study for the IPUMS Multigenerational Longitudinal Panel." Historical Methods 55: 12-29

Steven Ruggles. 2021. "The Revival of Quantification: Reflections on Old New Histories." Social Science History 45: 1-25.

Steven Ruggles and Diana Magnuson. 2020. "Census Technology, Politics, and Institutional Change, 1790-2020." Journal of American History 107: 19-51

David Van Riper, Tracy Kugler, and Steven Ruggles. 2020. "Disclosure Avoidance in the Census Bureau's 2010 Demonstration Data Product." In Josep Domingo-Ferrer and Krishnamurty Muralidhar, eds., Privacy in Statistical Databases. 353-369.

Steven Ruggles and Diana Magnuson. 2020. "Quantification in History: Journal of Interdisciplinary History as a Case Study." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 50: 363-382.

Steven Ruggles, Catherine Fitch, Diana Magnuson, and Jonathan Schroeder. 2019. "Differential Privacy and Census Data:Implications for Social and Economic Research." AEA Papers and Proceedings 109: 403-408

Steven Ruggles, Catherine Fitch, and Evan Roberts. 2018. "Historical Census Record Linkage." Annual Review of Sociology 44: 19-37

Steven Ruggles. 2016. "Marriage, Family Systems, and Economic Opportunity in the United States Since 1850." In S. M. McHale et al. (eds.) Gender and Couple Relationships (Heidelberg: Springer), pp. 3-41

Steven Ruggles, Tracy A. Kugler, Catherine A. Fitch, and David C. Van Riper. 2015. "Terra Populus: Integrated Data on Population and Environment.." 2015 IEEE International Conference on Data Mining Workshop (ICDMW) 222-231.

Steven Ruggles. 2015. "Patriarchy, Power, and Pay: The Transformation of American Families, 1800-2015." Demography, 52: 1797-1823

Steven Ruggles, Robert McCaa, Matthew Sobek, and Lara Cleveland. 2015. "The IPUMS Collaboration: Integrating and Disseminating the World's Population Microdata." Journal of Demographic Economics, 81: 203-216

Sheela Kennedy and Steven Ruggles. 2014. "Breaking up is Hard to Count: The Rise of Divorce in the United States, 1980-2010." Demography, 51: 587-298

Steven Ruggles. 2014. " Big Microdata for Population Research." Demography, 51: 287-297

Steven Ruggles. 2012. "The Future of Historical Family Demography." Annual Review of Sociology, 38: 423-441.

Steven Ruggles. 2011. "Intergenerational Coresidence and Family Transitions in the United States, 1850-1880." Journal of Marriage and the Family, 73: 136-148.

Steven Ruggles, Matthew Schroeder, Natasha Rivers, J. Trent Alexander, and Todd K. Gardner. 2011. "Frozen Film and FOSDIC Forms: Restoring the 1960 Census of Population." Historical Methods 44: 69-78.

Matthew Sobek, Lara Cleveland, Sarah Flood, Steven Ruggles, and Matthew Schroeder. 2011. "Big Data: Large-Scale Historical Infrastructure from the Minnesota Population Center." Historical Methods 44: 61-68.

Steven Ruggles, Evan Roberts, Sula Sarkar, and Matthew Sobek. 2011. "The North Atlantic Population Project: Progress and Prospects." Historical Methods 44: 1-6.

Petra Noble, David Van Riper, Steven Ruggles, Jonathan Schroeder, and Monty Hindman. 2011. "Harmonizing Data across Time and Place: The Integrated Spatio-Temporal Aggregate Data Series." Historical Methods 44: 79-85.

Steven Ruggles. 2010. "Stem Families and Joint Families in Comparative Historical Perspective." Population and Development Review 35: 249-273. PMCID: PMC3057610.

Robert McCaa, Steven Ruggles, and Matthew Sobek. 2010. "IPUMS-International Statistical Disclosure Controls." In Josep Domingo-Ferrer and Emmanouil Magkos, eds., Privacy in Statistical Databases. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, pp. 74-84.

Steven Ruggles. 2009. "Reconsidering the Northwest European Family System." Population and Development Review 35: 249-273. PMCID: PMC2917824

Michael Davern, Steven Ruggles, Tami Swenson, Michael Oakes, and Trent Alexander. 2009. "Drawing Statistical Inferences from Historical Census Data" Demography 46: 589-603. PMCID: PMC2831349

Steven Ruggles and Misty Heggeness. 2008. "Intergenerational Families in Developing Countries." Population and Development Review 34: 253-281.

Steven Ruggles. 2007. "The research5line of Intergenerational Coresidence in the United States, 1850-2000."American Sociological Review. 72: 962-989.

Steven Ruggles. 2006. "Linking Historical Censuses: A New Approach." History and Computing 14: 213-224.

Steven Ruggles2005. "The Minnesota Population Center Data Integration Projects: Challenges of harmonizing census microdata across time and place" 2005 Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Government Statistics Section, Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association, pp. 1405-1415.

Catherine Fitch, Ron Goeken and Steven Ruggles. 2005. "The Rise of Cohabitation in the United States: New Historical Estimates." Minnesota Population Center Working Paper.

Patricia Kelly Hall and Steven Ruggles. 2004. "'Restless in the Midst of their Prosperity': New Evidence of the Internal Migration Patterns  of Americans, 1850-1990." Journal of American History 91: 829-846.

Steven Ruggles. 2003. "Multigenerational families in nineteenth-century America." Continuity and Change 18: 139-165.

Steven Ruggles and Susan Brower. 2003. "The Measurement of Family and Household Composition in the United States, 1850-1999." Population and Development Review 29: 73-101.

Steven Ruggles. 2003. "The Measurement of Family and Household Composition in Census 2000: An Update." Population and Development Review 29: 480-482.

Steven Ruggles et al. 2003. Building Historical Data Infrastructure: New Projects of the Minnesota Population Center. Two Special issues, Historical Methods, 36:1 (Winter 2003) and 36:2 (Summer 2003). Introduction, Redesign, International, NAPP, NHGIS, 1880 Project

Steven Ruggles. 2001. Living Arrangements and Economic Well-being of the Aged in the Past." Population Bulletin of the United Nations. 42/43: 111-61.

Catherine Fitch and Steven Ruggles. 2000. Historical Trends in Marriage Formation." In Linda Waite, Christine Bachrach, Michelle Hindin, Elizabeth Thomson, and Arland Thornton, eds., Ties that Bind: Perspectives on Marriage and Cohabitation. Hawthorne: Aldine de Gruyter, pp. 59-88.

Task Force on Census. 2000. The Public Use Microdata Samples of the U.S. Census: Research Applications and Privacy Issues. Prepared by Steven Ruggles with Catherine A. Fitch and Matthew Sobek. Minneapolis: Minnesota Population Center.

Steven Ruggles. 1999. "The Limitations of English Family Reconstitution." Continuity and Change 14: 105-130.

Steven Ruggles. 1997. "The Rise of Divorce and Separation in the United States, 1880-1990." Demography 34: 455-466.

Steven Ruggles. 1997. "Reply to Oppenheimer and Preston." Demography 34: 475-479.

Steven Ruggles. 1996 "The Effects of Demographic Change on Multigenerational Family Structure: United States Whites 1880-1980"  In Alain Bideau, A. Perrenoud, K.A. Lynch and G. Brunet, eds., Les systemes demographiques du passe. Lyons: Centre Jacques Cartier, pp. 21-40.

Steven Ruggles. 1994. "The Transformation of American Family Structure." American Historical Review 99: 103-128.

Steven Ruggles. 1994. "The Origins of African-American Family Structure." American Sociological Review 59: 136-151.

Steven Ruggles. 1993. "Confessions of a Microsimulator: Problems in Modeling the Demography of Kinship." Historical Methods 26: 161-169.

Steven Ruggles. 1992. "Migration, Marriage, and Mortality: Correcting Sources of Bias in English Family Reconstitutions." Population Studies 46: 507-522.

Steven Ruggles and Ron Goeken. 1992. "Race and Multigenerational Family Structure, 1900- 1980.." In Scott J. South and Stuart E. Tolnay, eds., The Changing American Family: Sociological and Demographic Perspectives Boulder: Westview Press, pp. 15-42.

Steven Ruggles. 1991. "The U.S. Public Use Microdata Files as a Source for the Study of Long Term Social Change." IASSIST Quarterly 15: 20-27.

Steven Ruggles. 1991. "Comparability of the Public Use Files of the U.S. Census of Population, 1880-1980." Social Science History 15: 123-158.

Steven Ruggles. 1991. "Integration of the Public Use Samples of the U.S. Census." 1991 Proceedings of the American Statistical Association Social Statistics Section. Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association, pp. 365-370.

Miriam King and Steven Ruggles. 1990. "American Immigration, Fertility Differentials, and the Ideology of Race Suicide at the Turn of the Century." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 20: 347-369.

Steven Ruggles. 1988. "The Demography of the Unrelated Individual 1900-1950." Demography 25: 521-536.

Steven Ruggles. 1986. "Availability of Kin and the Demography of Historical Family Structure.." Historical Methods 19: 93-102.

Steven Ruggles. 1983. "Fallen Women: The Inmates of the Magdalen Society Asylum of Philadelphia 1836-1908." Journal of Social History 16: 65-82.